Influenza viruses (INFV) are segmented RNA viruses that cause seasonal influenza epidemics and influenza pandemics. INFV A infects birds and some mammals (e.g. pigs and humans), while VFV B only infects humans and seals. Both Influenza A and B pose a severe threat to public health and the agricultural economy. Influenza viruses mutate quickly by antigenic drift and reassortment, re- quiring the development and reformulation of new vaccines each year. Influenza strains resistant to almost all known drugs have been identified, making influenza drug development a high priority. Con- cerns about INFV have been further heightened due to the potential for transmission of highly patho- genic avian influenza (HPAI) strains to humans.
MDCK cells infected and CPE detected using a standard crystal violet staining
Vero cells infected and viral plaque detected by a standard immunoplaque assay
INFV plaque formation in PRNT assay.