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Cornnavirus Variants List

The heavily glycosylated spike (S) protein on its surface give Coronavirus a crown-like appearance. These proteins recognize the ACE2 receptors on host cell surfaces to facilitate viral entry. As a key determinant of host and cell tropism, antigenicity and immunogenicity, interspecies transmission and pathogenesis1 the spike protein is a attractive candidate for antiviral inhibitors and vaccine development2,3,4.

Amino acid changes that occur during the virus life cycle led to the emergences of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Some of the variants carry mutations associated with increase transmissibility or virulence. The table below lists the “variants of concern” currently on the  World Health Organization  (WHO) and the CDC watchlist.  The ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2 will require continuous research and development to create a therapeutic pipeline to effectively protect against COVID-19.

 

Common Name (Origin)
Lineage
Spike Amino Acid Mutations
Wild-type
(Wuhan)
Parental Strain
--
Alpha
(United Kingdom)
B.1.1.7/501Y.V1
del69–70 HV, del144 Y, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T761I, S982A, D1118H
Beta
(South Africa)
B.1.351
K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V
Gamma
(Brazil)
P.1
L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I
Delta
(India)
B.1.617
L452R, E484Q
Epsilon
(California, USA)
B.1.427
B.1.429
L452R, D614G
SS13I, W152C, L452R, D614G
D614G (--)
--
D614G
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Fig. 1 Survival after challenge with INFV H1N1 A/Pert/261/2009 (Tamiflu-resistant strain). Inoculum 1xLD90=1.0E+05 PFU/mouse
Survival after challenge with INFV H1N1 A/Pert/261/2009 (Tamiflu-resistant strain) 1.0E+05 PFU/mouse
Survival and weight change in BALB/c mice challenged with INFV A/ Texas/36/91 (H1N1) and treated with antiviral Osletamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu)
Lung viral load and Survival (30 % weight loss cut-off) in BALB/c mice challenged with INFV H3N2 A/HK/1/68.

Alpha (UK) – B. 1.1.7 / 501Y.V1

amino acid mutations: del69–70 HV, del144 Y, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T761I, S982A, D1118H

Beta (South Africa) – B.1.351

amino acid mutations: K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V

Gamma (Brazil) – P.1

amino acid mutations: L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I

Epsilon (Ca, USA) B.1.427

amino acid mutations: L452R, D614G

SARS-CoV-2 Parental Strain Wild Type (Wuhan)
SARS-CoV-2 D614G Variant

amino acid mutations: D614G

Epsilon (Ca, USA) B.1.429

amino acid mutations: S13I, W152C, L452R, D614G

SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant

amino acid mutations: L452R, E484Q