Assay Details

The hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) test is a common test for the serological diagnosis of virus infections.  Viruses have surface proteins that attach to red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate (hemagglutination). The basis for the hemagglutination-inhibition test (HAI) is antibodies against the viral protein will prevent the virus induced hemagglutination. Serum from the animal is tested to determine the minimum dilution that inhibits the hemagglutination. This is reported as the HAI titer of the serum.

A number of HAIs are offered targeting influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8.

Fig. 1 Survival after challenge with INFV H1N1 A/Pert/261/2009 (Tamiflu-resistant strain). Inoculum 1xLD90=1.0E+05 PFU/mouse
Survival after challenge with INFV H1N1 A/Pert/261/2009 (Tamiflu-resistant strain) 1.0E+05 PFU/mouse
Survival and weight change in BALB/c mice challenged with INFV A/ Texas/36/91 (H1N1) and treated with antiviral Osletamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu)
Lung viral load and Survival (30 % weight loss cut-off) in BALB/c mice challenged with INFV H3N2 A/HK/1/68.

Alpha (UK) – B. 1.1.7 / 501Y.V1

amino acid mutations: del69–70 HV, del144 Y, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T761I, S982A, D1118H

Beta (South Africa) – B.1.351

amino acid mutations: K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V

Gamma (Brazil) – P.1

amino acid mutations: L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I

Epsilon (Ca, USA) B.1.427

amino acid mutations: L452R, D614G

SARS-CoV-2 Parental Strain Wild Type (Wuhan)
SARS-CoV-2 D614G Variant

amino acid mutations: D614G

Epsilon (Ca, USA) B.1.429

amino acid mutations: S13I, W152C, L452R, D614G

SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant

amino acid mutations: L452R, E484Q