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Closing the gate on SARS-CoV-2: A VSV pseudotype neutralization assay targeting the key to viral entry

To address the urgent and immediate need for R&D tools for the fight against the public health threat from SARS-CoV-2, IBT Bioservices now offers a pseudotype virus system to assay inhibition of infectivity in a BSL-2 environment. Briefly, Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein gene (G) has been substituted with SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein (rVSV pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 Spike). The recombinant rVSV-DG SARS-CoV-2 Spike has been incorporated into a convenient luciferase-based neutralization assay for evaluating the efficacy of drug candidates that target Spike-mediated infection (Figure 1). This system is similar to previously published and validated VSV pseudotype platform for Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus1,2,3.

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Staphylococcus aureus skin infection model

The increasing rate of bacterial resistance creates a challenging environment for the development of therapies for bacterial infections. Bacterial skin infections are one of the leading manifestations of infectious disease in the world. Staphylococcus aureus—both Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and Methicillin-Sensitive (MSSA) strains—is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections in the USA. It is the leading cause of hospital associated (HA) and community associated (CA) infections worldwide.

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Coronavirus: The Origin Story

In recent years, animal-to-human crossovers have been observed with Nipha virus in Malaysia, Ebola and Marburg viruses in Africa. SARS-CoV-2 is just one among three 21st century animal-to-human Coronavirus spillover events. Considering the high rate of mutation among RNA viruses, the number of animal coronaviruses, and the mixing of animal species in densely populated areas spillover into  is not unexpected.

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Flow Cytometry: A Vital Tool for Evaluating Vaccine Effectiveness

Flow cytometry uses light scattering, light excitation and emission of fluorochrome molecules to gather detailed information about specific cells or particles of interest. Using antibody-fluorophore conjugates flow cytometry allows researchers to draw phenotype-dependent conclusions about cellular phenotype and function.  The fluorophores present on bound antibodies excited by lasers yield detailed…

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Production of Monoclonal Antibodies

Hybridoma Technology  History Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are monovalent (one epitope) antibodies derived from clones of a single parental immune cell. The original method for producing monoclonal antibodies is found in hybridoma technology. Prior to the production of monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies (multiple epitopes, multiple parental cells) were the standard for…

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Alhydrogel Interference in Immunoassays

Troubleshooting immunoassays for adjuvanted vaccine products The safety record, affordability, and compatibility of aluminum to many antigens makes them a primary choice of adjuvant. Aluminum adjuvant compounds (such as aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) and aluminum phosphate (AlPO4)) help maintain the physical and chemical characteristics of antigens and increase their repository effect…

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Prophylaxis and immunotherapy of S. aureus/MRSA disease

Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes approximately one third of the human population1.  It causes a wide range of diseases from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) to life-threatening systemic disease such as bacteremia and pneumonia with high mortality rates2,3.  Currently, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is killing as many people…

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Fig. 1 Survival after challenge with INFV H1N1 A/Pert/261/2009 (Tamiflu-resistant strain). Inoculum 1xLD90=1.0E+05 PFU/mouse
Survival after challenge with INFV H1N1 A/Pert/261/2009 (Tamiflu-resistant strain) 1.0E+05 PFU/mouse
Survival and weight change in BALB/c mice challenged with INFV A/ Texas/36/91 (H1N1) and treated with antiviral Osletamivir Phosphate (Tamiflu)
Lung viral load and Survival (30 % weight loss cut-off) in BALB/c mice challenged with INFV H3N2 A/HK/1/68.

Alpha (UK) – B. 1.1.7 / 501Y.V1

amino acid mutations: del69–70 HV, del144 Y, N501Y, A570D, D614G, P681H, T761I, S982A, D1118H

Beta (South Africa) – B.1.351

amino acid mutations: K417N, E484K, N501Y, D614G, A701V

Gamma (Brazil) – P.1

amino acid mutations: L18F, T20N, P26S, D138Y, R190S, K417T, E484K, N501Y, D614G, H655Y, T1027I

Epsilon (Ca, USA) B.1.427

amino acid mutations: L452R, D614G

SARS-CoV-2 Parental Strain Wild Type (Wuhan)
SARS-CoV-2 D614G Variant

amino acid mutations: D614G

Epsilon (Ca, USA) B.1.429

amino acid mutations: S13I, W152C, L452R, D614G

SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant

amino acid mutations: L452R, E484Q